Khushmurodova Shakhnoza Shaymonkulovna,
English teacher of Samarkand State University
Key words: borrowing words, loan words, adopting, phraseological units, importance, concept, paraphrase, international.
In the creation of world picture a language takes an important role. However, the richness of vocabulary and phraseological units also play an important role. O. A. Kornilov said about the importance of language that it has own national way in the creating linguistic view. And on the base of every language there appears terminology in special subjects [О.А. Kornilov, 1999, p.75].
Another real consideration is that there is not any language without new words or terms in the world. Because in the far development of history different countries, nations made interrelations causing new phrases and expressions appearing in the language.
Some scientists and linguists agree that loan words contribute to the development of linguistics, while others consider that these new words from another language influence the pure language to be decreased.
We should acknowledge that loan words impact on the picture world of the native language. New words related to science, technology, technics, most of the English words, come into the language of another speakers. Even the Japanese who are very attentive in this case pointed that 99% of the words in the sphere of technology are English words.
It is clear that people’s degree of knowledge, world picture of thoughts are not steady. They occasionally changed and developed as a result of new words and conceptions appear in the language.
On the other hand, his view of the world or “conceptosphere” develops gradually. According to prof. Sh. Safarov conceptosphere is not a steady occasion, its area always broadens as humans to realization of reality developed, its supply of concepts also increases, contents become complicated. Contents of concept is increased in the field of national conceptoshere, and revolves as national-cultural identity. [Sh. Safarov, 2013, p. 270]. For example, fifty years ago was invented a new tool which keeps voice relation and spreaded immediately with its called name to other parts of the world. The invention of “telephone” is called with its given name in another language also. This foreign name is acquired to another languages according to the necessity for that subject. Actually, inconsequence, the conceptual world of the home language is increased [B. Serebrennikov, 1988, p. 80]. Even those who resisted of borrowing words to another language would not disagree with such occasion. Because some words related to new discoveries directly passes through as primarily given name. Another way of borrowing words is creating new paraphrase word in a given language. For example, while borrowing the English word “businessman”, there is chosen Uzbek word “tadbirkor” and this word actively took part in Uzbek dictionary. Definitely, while borrowing new words conceptual view of the language similarly enriches.
But there is a bit of difference between two words. “borrowing” and “loaning”. Borrowing is adopting a new word both the name in the source language with its meaning, while loaning is acquiring a new word from another language. Actually, it is clearly seen that the first way of adopting words help to develop inner lexicons of the language.
For example, in recent years Uzbek sport “wrestling” plays a role in the world sport, and adds concept to the world conceptual view. Moreover, with the word Uzbek “Kurash” created other relevant terms like “halol”, “chala”, “g’irrom”, “dakki”, “to’xta”. First type of acquiring words are widely used in Uzbek social life also. For example: “ Markaziy saylov komissiyasining kengaytirilgan onlayn majlisi bo’lib o’tdi” [“Xalq So’zi”, 2015, 28-mart], “Esingizda bo’lsin kitob.uz saytida savollarni oldindan yuborish imkoniyati mavjud [“Ma’rifat”, 2012, 18-aprel], “Eng yaxshi veb-saytlar aniqlandi” [“Ma’rifat’, 2015, 21-mart], “O’zbekistonda kreditlash tizimi jaxon reytingida yuqori pog’onaga ko’tarildi [“Ishonch”, 2014, 1-noyabr].
It should be noted that with the development of science and technology, progress in international relationships among countries decreased some scientists’ negative attitude towards borrow words and phrases.
Academic A.J. Xodjayev said “There is not any reason to find Uzbek option for some words like “yadro”, “lampochka”, “elektr”, “radio” just because they are related to another language. New words enriches lexic existence of Uzbek linguistics [A.M. Xodjayev, “Chet tili o’qitish metodikasi”, c.75].
All in all, with the advent of new discoveries, progress in social-political, cultural, spiritual and economic life and advances in technology caused borrowing new words from English language like briefing, broker, barter, lising, business, grant, deficit, investment, investor, marketing, service, online, computer, printer, internet, file, site, web-site, Winchester, rating, flash drive, image, lyceum, college, gymnasium, bachelor, master, test, multimedia, modernization, diversification and others. We can divide them according to the importance in such way.
In the field of finance and economy: audit, barter, broker, listing, tender and others
In the field of commodity: marketing, shopping, boutique, management, market, supermarket and others.
In the field of Media: show, triller, clip. Names of TV programs: TV star, TV show, Star Line,
In the field of sport: bodybuilding, shaping, volleyball, basketball, football, tennis, taekwondo and others.
In the field of education: bachelor, master, hacker, provider, grant and others.
In the field of entertainment: pizza, popcorn, spray, club, karaoke and others.
Besides, some abbreviations also borrowed from English language: OBSE, ASEAN, OPEK, TRASEKA.
English language is also has passed through many periods in which large numbers of words from a particular language were borrowed. These periods coincide with times of major cultural contact between English speakers and those speaking other language.
The actual process of borrowing is complex and involves many usage events. Generally some speakers of the borrowing language know the source language too, or at least enough of it to utilize the relevant words. They adopt them when speaking the borrowing language. If they are bilingual in the source language, which is often the case, they might pronounce the words the same or similar to the way they are pronounced in the source language. For example, English speakers adopted the words garage from French, at first with a pronunciation nearer to the French than is now usually found. Presumably the very first speakers who used the words in English knew at least some French and heard the word used by French speakers [S. Kremmer, “Words in English”, p. 3]
New word is used by speakers with the speakers of the source language, who are familiar with the word, and gradually it might be used in the borrowing language in which people don’t know the word. These people consider the word as a foreign one. We can bring many foreign words and expressions used in English language such as: bon vivant (French), mutatis mutandis (Latin), and Schadenfreude (German). When the words which are borrowed used often, people used to express them more even not knowing about the source language. The novel word becomes conventionalized. Actually, this process may be called borrowing or loan words. But we should take into consideration that not all foreign words in the intercultural communication become loan words, some words may fall out of the usage, and cannot be transmitted. If the words are constantly used in a given language, the more it becomes similar to the word of the language. This process is related to long cultural history of English speakers, that they always borrowed words whenever faced new people, culture and place. From the history of English language French considered the dominant part of among the source languages with words like: ballet, cachet, champagne, salon, saloon, roulette, chic. In the field of military ,war, law and government : bastion, brigade, battalion, cavalry, grenade, bayonet, jail, judge, government, jury, noble, parliament, prison, state, tax and others. Words related Church: religion, saint, sermon, prayer, preach, priest, chapter, clergy. Words related Cooking: beef, boil, broil, butcher, dine, fry, mutton, pork, poultry, salmon, stew, veal.Culture and luxury goods: art, bracelet, dance, diamond, fashion, fur, jewel, painting, pendant, satin, ruby, sculpture.
Nowadays borrowing is continuing with technological advances, according to which country is more prosperous. For example borrowing from Japanese has top off over the past years. Words like judo, sushi, or tsunami are familiar for everyone, both Uzbek speakers and English ones. The word sushi is first recorded in English in the 1890s but the earliest examples in print all feel the need to explain what sushi is, and it is only in recent decades that it has become ubiquitous, as sushi has spread along the high street and into supermarket chiller cabinets in most corners of the English-speaking world [Philipp Durkin, “A history of Loan-words in English”, p. 123].
If we look back to the 1800s Latin, French, Greek and German were much more dominant. This owes a great deal to the specialist vocabularies of science, technology and learning: compare for example oxygen, borrowed from French (but formed from the elements of Greek origin), or paraffin, borrowed from German (but formed from the elements of Latin origin). Looking a little further back, in the 1500s, 1600s and 1700s there are familiar words entering English from Spanish, like guitar or cargo, potato or tomato, and from Italian, like macaroni, opera or piazza. There is a slightly earlier seam of borrowings from Dutch like deck, luck or pickle.
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“Xalq So’zi”, 2015, 28-mart
“Ma’rifat”, 2015, 21-mart
“Ishonch”, 2014, 1-noyabr
Хушмуродова Ш. Процессе заимствованная слова английского и узбекского языков. Данная статья посвящается изучению новых слов, а также заимствованных слов английского и узбекского языков. Автор описывает важность новых слов, причина их включения в состав другого языка и влияние развития общественно-политической, культурной и экономической сфер жизни на этот процесс.
Хушмуродова Ш. Инглиз ва ўзбек тилларида ўзлаштирилган сўзлар. Мазкур мақола инглиз ва ўзбек тилларда янги ўзлаштирилган сўзларнинг тадқиқига бағишланган. Муаллиф янги сўзларнинг бошқа тилга ўзлаштириш жараёнининг муҳимлигини ва сабабларини тасвирлаб бериб, бу жараёнга ижтимоий-сиёсий, маданий ва иқтисодий хаётнинг таъсирини кўрсатиб берган.