(Indonesian Language Lecturer) Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages,
Key words: mind mapping strategy, ILFS, vocabulary.
In globalization era, just as nowadays, language has an important role in human life as a medium of communication to other people. There are a lot of languages all over the world used as an international language such as English, Arabic, Mandarin, Russia, etc.
Lately, one of the languages started to be learned by foreigners and grown rapidly is Indonesian language (Dv, Nv; 2018; http://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/lamanbahasa/berita/2700/di-luar-negeri-bahasa-indonesia-semakin-diminati). The strategic position of Indonesia and natural resources as well as human resources makes Indonesia’s role more strengthening internationally. The eagerness of some countries relating to Indonesia itself makes them learn Indonesian Language. In an article of Pikiran Rakyat Daily News, it was stated that Indonesian Language has been already learned in more than 40 countries.
Language is a system of sound or voice as well as words to express thoughts and feelings. It means that language is a medium to express idea, thoughts, feelings, and wishes using sounds, voices or words. Language also is used as communication medium, language is used also as a mean of our purpose, resulting feelings and probably creating cooperation among human. The language manages all kinds of people’s activities, planning and directing our future (Gorys Keraf, 1997).
One of the most important parts of language is vocabulary (glossary). One who is able to memorize many vocabularies and their meanings well will be easily understands and even speaks fluently in target language. It is needed, of course, the way to master, enrich the vocabularies to be able to communicate well in target language.
Vocabularies, glossaries, lexicons, are the word wealth of a language. Learning vocabularies is the first step in language learning, since no one communicates without words themselves. Most of students acknowledge the importance of vocabulary acquisition. Leaning vocabularies, however, are not optimally applied in language learning.
Vocabulary mastery in all language skills has an important role to determine of language competence of the learners. Therefore, learning vocabulary should be connected directly to the receptive ability and language production wholly. For instance, how a foreign language learner understands the difficult words or expression found in the text in reading skills is similar to other skills (speaking, listening, and writing).
One of the strategies to learn vocabularies is mind mapping strategy which can be used as the best strategy. Buzan (2009) stated that mind mapping is an effective strategy and efficient to store words in to our mind. Mind mapping strategy is a graphic technique involving words, colors, and pictures. Mind mapping strategy becomes a way to shorten and summarize that can manage brain to work naturally. It is, of course, different to conventional notes in which they are written in a long list form. Mind mapping concept takes students’ mind to imagine an object as a whole part that is connected one another. If students use the convention notes, they have to memorize words what they listed before. It sometimes makes students forget some words that they already memorized.
On the other hand, by using mind mapping strategy, students build all the picture that they can imagine relating to the keywords and pictures. For examples, if the teacher asks the students to imagine the word “classroom” the students will imagine things relating to the keyword, such as: table, chair, book, teacher, student, eraser, etc. They will recall all the words quickly because they write the words by picture. Mind mapping is expected to make students mastering vocabularies quickly in order that they can communicate in target language well. Therefore, the writer focuses on teaching vocabularies to students by using mind mapping strategy.
The main goal of using mind mapping in this research is vocabularies. According to Soedjito (2009), vocabularies or glossaries can be defined as; (1) all words in a language, (2) the word storage owned by someone or writer, (3) words used in a knowledge / subject, (4) word lists that are listed just like dictionary as well as their brief and practical explanations. Meanwhile, glossaries stated by Richard, Platt and Webber (1985) are a mean of lexeme including singular or plural words and idioms.
Keraf (2001) divided the vocabulary mastery stages as below;
Children Stage. The vocabulary mastery for children more tends to ability concrete opinion. They just need some terminologies to express words freely.
Teenager Stage. When one starts to go to school, the previous process still continues and added by several processes to master their language and to enrich their vocabularies.
Adult stage. For those growing to be adult, both the previous stages are continuing. Enrichment process continues more intensive because in the stage someone must be able in many things just like skills; therefore, he must communicate with other people.
Vocabulary mastery is very important in language, the more one masters in vocabularies, the more he/she has language skills (Tarigan, 1989). Fahrudin and Jamaris (2005) say that vocabulary mastery can be divided into two groups, i.e.; mastery vocabulary in reception and production.
Receptive vocabulary mastery is the understanding process which is uttered by other people, reception is meant as a passive mastery. Meanwhile, production mastery is a process to communicate ideas, thoughts, and feelings through language form.
Vocabulary mastery in daily activities has the important role, since the human mind can be only understood clearly by others if only the mind is uttered by using vocabularies. Then, Pustejovsky in Fahrudin and Jamaris (2005) showed that language capacity of someone is a reflection of their ability to categorize and to show particular meanings.
According to Martin in Trianto (2009), mind mapping is important and new innovation to assist children resulting a meaningful learning in class. Mind mapping help teachers understand various concepts which is laid inside the taught topic. Clear mapping is able to help avoiding misconception which is made by students.
Mind mapping combines and develop potentially the human brain work. By involving two sides of brain, it will be easily for someone to manage and recall all kinds of information in written or verbally.
Based on the theories above, it can be concluded that applying mind mapping as a learning model is expected to develop students’ understanding and memorizing toward vocabularies. The students will easily remember various words which will be used to communicate either actively or passively.
According to Tony Buzan (2009), the steps in making mind mapping are; (1) start in the center of a blank page turned sideways, (2) use an image or picture for your central idea, (3) use colors throughout, (4) connect your main branches to the central image and connect your second- and third-level branches to the first and second levels, etc., (5) make your branches curved rather than straight-lined, (6) use one key word per line, and (7) use images throughout.
There are steps that should be done in learning process of mind mapping model. They are; (1) overview, checking for all topics, (2) preview, more explanation toward a topic, (3) in view, the point of learning process, (4) review, rechecking in the end of learning.
Similar to other learning models, mind mapping model has also advantages and disadvantages (weakness). According to Olivia (2008), the advantages of mid mapping are; (1) easy ways to dig information either inside or outside of brain, (2) new ways to study and train quickly, (3) the way in making notes avoiding boredom, (4) the best way to get new idea and planning project, (5) medium for thinking because of helping twice to think better, twice faster, twice more clearly, and interesting. And the disadvantages of mind mapping are; (1) only students are active, (2) students do not study at all, (3) students’ mind mapping are various making teacher difficult to check.
Almost of all the students feel difficultly in mastering vocabularies because of difficult memorizing and categorizing words. Therefore, it is important for teacher to choose the appropriate and engrossed strategy in order that the students of Indonesian language are able to master many vocabularies.
Mind mapping is precise strategy to improve vocabulary mastery of language learners, especially in Indonesian language. Vocabulary will be grouped into mind mapping based on the category, for example; fruits, vegetables, occupations, transportations, animals, clothes, etc. Therefore, the students will understand the meaning of the words by understanding word context and also helped by the keywords.
In learning activities, teacher will introduce the word category, for instance “fruits”. Then the teacher asks students to make that word (fruit) as a keyword by writing it capitally in the center of blank paper. Next, students draw branches from the keyword itself to make as many as words relating to the keyword (fruit). They can write words, such as; banana, apple, melon, grape, etc. After students finish making mind mapping, teacher asks them to memorize the words as well as to imagine the picture. For Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) students, the teacher should also consider about students’ pronunciation. Teacher also asks students to build the words to become sentences, both speaking and writing.
This study focuses on mind mapping, because this strategy will help students memorize words quickly and enrich the new words. According to the writer, the students of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) in Uzbekistan are still difficult to categorize some independent words, since the students are not accustomed to Indonesian language rather than other languages such as English or Russian Language.
The problem of this study is formulated as “Can mind mapping strategy improve students’ mastery of vocabularies?”. This study is aimed to know how mind mapping strategy can enrich and improve vocabularies of students in vocabulary mastery.
This study only focuses on mind mapping analysis in vocabulary learning of students in Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) in Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages.
This research is conducted in Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) in Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages, Uzbekistan. Total of subjects is 29 students; male students are 6 persons while female students are 22 persons.
Research time is conducted in October 2018 until December 2018 in odd semester. This research is Classroom Action research (CAR). This research was started by (1) Planning, (2) Implementing, (3) Observing, and (4) Evaluating or reflecting. This research is carried out in two cycles, i.e.; the firs cycle as an implementation of action, while second cycle is the betterment (Arikunto, 2010).
Source of data is from students’ information of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) in level A-1 in which their program is English department and Translation department in Samarkand State Foreign Language Institute, Uzbekistan. The data as a learning observation is obtained by using observation sheets and evaluation mark by giving tests.
The techniques of collecting data is this research are; (1) observation, the observation was done toward both teacher and students’ activities during the learning activities, (2) Tests, in this research, the tests were given at the end of learning activities, (3) Documentation, such as photos and videos of learning activities, lesson plans, syllabi, and list of evaluation.
The technique used in checking for data validity, the researcher used source triangulation and technique triangulation. Source triangulation is done by checking data about leaning activity process; meanwhile technique triangulation is observation, tests, and documentations.
Data analysis used is interaction data analysis which was introduced by Miles and Huberman in Sugiyono (2008). It consists of three phases, i.e.; (1) data reduction, data display, the data displayed is recapitulation result both students and teacher’s activities during learning proses, (3) data verification, checking about research’s report.
Indicator of performance of this research was based on curriculum and syllabus of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) level A-1 as well as standard of minimum completeness of mastery learning, i.e.: ≥ 65 score. This research is categorized to succeed if 80% students in Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) level A-1 at Samarkand State Foreign Language Institute, Uzbekistan achieve ≥ 65 score of standard of minimum completeness of mastery learning.
Pre cycle-test was given at the first meeting before attending the cycle I and cycle II. Post cycle-test was given at the end of meeting in two cycles; each cycle consists of three meetings. The result of students’ vocabularies can be seen in the table below;
From the table above, it can be concluded that the improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery rapidly from pre cycle-test to the post cycle I-test, then for the final test in post cycle II-test.
Based on observation result and data analysis in result of research can be known that there was improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery by applying mind mapping strategy in each cycle.
The students of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) at Samarkand State Foreign Languages Institute are beginner students (level A-1). Pre cycle-test was given on 22nd of September 2018, in the fifth meeting of Indonesian language class. No students could pass ≥ 65 score of standard of minimum completeness of mastery learning. It was normal since they did not know many vocabularies in meeting five of leaning activities.
Nevertheless, after post cycle I-test had been given on 7th November 2018 and it had been already in meeting 16. It can be seen the improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery. The lesson of vocabularies by applying mind mapping strategy had been given 3 times by 2 weeks range in each meeting. The students had known some vocabularies quickly because mind mapping strategy helped them memorize branches of vocabularies themselves even though they didn’t understand completely for all words in a sentence.
At the end of the test (post cycle II-test), it can be seen the significant improvement if compared to the pre cycle-test. The test was given on 1st December 2018 and it has been in meeting 24. The students more understood and memorized many vocabularies by applying mind mapping strategy. This improvement can be seen in table 2 as follows, it is summary of students’ evaluation ≥ 65 score.
Based on the observation result by interviewing to some students, it was gotten information that they didn’t understand all the words in questions (there are 25 questions). There were some words that they didn’t know, nevertheless; by mind mapping strategy they were confident to answer the question. The students understood in context by keywords inside of the sentences.
Based on the result of this classroom action research which was held during two cycles and each cycle consisted of three meetings, it can be said that the hypothesis formulated has been proved. By applying learning model of mind mapping strategy can improve students’ vocabulary mastery of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) in Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages in Uzbekistan. It can be seen from pre cycle-test result, the percentage of standard of minimum completeness was 0% only. Then, post cycle I-test was obtained the improvement to be 37.93%, and for the last, post cycle II-test, improved significantly to be 93.10%.
The average mark also improved from 30.62 in pre cycle-test to be 53.79 in the post cycle I-test. And, in the last test, post cycle II-test, improved significantly to be 85.31.
It shows that the students of foreign language (non-mother language) will find difficulties to understand and memorize vocabularies quickly and preciously. Therefore, it is needed a strategy in language teaching, especially for vocabularies to improve students’ language ability either in active communication or passive communication. And mind mapping strategy is one of the best choices.
Teacher of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) even other language teachers can use mind mapping in learning activities. This strategy can be used in all language skills, such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teacher can create more by mind mapping strategy to improve the vocabularies, because the vocabularies are the base of a language to communicate both actively and passively in target language.
Students also need to be motivated to memorize as many as words in Indonesian language or target learned language so that they can use the words in writing or speaking. Students can make notes by mind mapping forms so as to become attractive, easily remembered, and full of creation.
It is expected that there will be other researches about mind mapping strategy to develop new strategies to result betterment of learning activities. It can hopefully improve the learning process of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers (ILFS) or other foreign languages.
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Насутион Ж. Обогащение словарного запаса у студентов Самаркандского государственного института иностранных языков при обучении индонезийскому языку для зарубежных студентов использованием стратегии мозгового штурма. Настоящая статья посвящается особенностям применения стратегии мозгового штурма в обучении студентов Самаркандского государственного института индонезийскому языку для зарубежных студентов.
Насутион Ж. Самарқанд давлат чет тиллар институтининг талабаларига хорижий талабалар учун индонезия тилини ўргатиш жараёнида ақлий ҳужум стратегиясидан фойдаланишнинг сўз бойлигини ошириш натижаси. Мазкур мақола Самарқанд давлат чет тиллар институтининг талабаларига хорижий талабалар учун индонезия тилини ўргатиш жараёнида ақлий ҳужум стратегиясидан фойдаланишнинг хусусиятлари очиб берилган.